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Rée proposed marriage to her, but she, instead, proposed that they should live and study together as "brother and sister", along with another man for company, where they would establish an academic commune. [110], Nietzsche's mental illness was originally diagnosed as tertiary syphilis, in accordance with a prevailing medical paradigm of the time. People often forget the simple fact that the Nachlass and The Will to Power are two different things.[123]. English translation in Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, Paul V. Cohn (trans. And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in 1888 when he left Sils Maria. Here Foucault referenced Nietzsche's description of the birth and death of tragedy and his explanation that the subsequent tragedy of the Western world was the refusal of the tragic and, with that, refusal of the sacred. Bonn: Bouvier, 1985, 342. He cautioned, however, that morality, per se, is not bad; it is good for the masses and should be left to them. Pronunciation of Friedrich nietzsche with 8 audio pronunciations, 1 meaning, 8 translations, 2 sentences and more for Friedrich nietzsche. He attacked most of the moral ideas that were popular at the time because he did not believe that there are any real facts about what is right or wrong. Nietzsche led "Germania", a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg. Zarathustra contrasts the overman with the last man of egalitarian modernity (the most obvious example being democracy), an alternative goal humanity might set for itself. Nietzsche stood at the beginning of his most productive period. Between 1873 and 1876, he published four separate long essays: "David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer", "On the Use and Abuse of History for Life", "Schopenhauer as Educator", and "Richard Wagner in Bayreuth". That year he also met Lou Andreas-Salomé,[84] through Malwida von Meysenbug and Paul Rée. He invented the idea of the "will to power". [50] At Schulpforta, Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages—Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and French—so as to be able to read important primary sources;[53] he also experienced for the first time being away from his family life in a small-town conservative environment. Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions appear in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make (Apollonian) order of his unjust and chaotic (Dionysian) fate, though he dies unfulfilled. His works remain controversial, due to varying interpretations and misinterpretations. [113][114] Leonard Sax suggested the slow growth of a right-sided retro-orbital meningioma as an explanation of Nietzsche's dementia;[115] Orth and Trimble postulated frontotemporal dementia[116] while other researchers have proposed a hereditary stroke disorder called CADASIL. [208][209] As such, according to Nietzsche, the drive for conservation appears as the major motivator of human or animal behavior only in exceptions, as the general condition of life is not one of a 'struggle for existence. [236], A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. Gaddis, P.H. The following day, Overbeck received a similar letter and decided that Nietzsche's friends had to bring him back to Basel. At the beginning of 1888, Brandes delivered in Copenhagen one of the first lectures on Nietzsche's philosophy. [306] The plays The Great God Brown and Lazarus Laughed are examples of Nietzsche's influence on him. He also began a friendship with Paul Rée who, in 1876, influenced him into dismissing the pessimism in his early writings. The Greek spectators, by looking into the abyss of human suffering depicted by characters on stage, passionately and joyously affirmed life, finding it worth living. He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism;[46] 20th-century scholars contested this interpretation of his work and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available. [200] Its cause, in his opinion, was the growth in European nationalism and the endemic "jealousy and hatred" of Jewish success. His health improved and he spent the summer in high spirits. "[206] According to Nietzsche, it is only when nihilism is overcome that a culture can have a true foundation on which to thrive. [321] Georg Simmel compares Nietzsche's importance to ethics to that of Copernicus for cosmology. [82] Gast was one of the very few friends Nietzsche allowed to criticize him. Adorno summed up Nietzsche's philosophy as expressing the "humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. Nietzsche asserted that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. At first, he was a professor at the University of Basel. Life turns away from itself as there is nothing of value to be found in the world. Also sprach Zarathustra/Thus Spoke Zarathustra: German/English Bilingual Text | Richardson, Tony J, Nietzsche, Friedrich | ISBN: 9781909669796 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. J.N. To his former colleague Burckhardt, Nietzsche wrote:[102]. He thought that the supermen would be stronger than normal humans, and not restricted by other people's ideas of right and wrong. "I am a pure-blooded Polish nobleman, without a single drop of bad blood, certainly not German blood. ", Riley, T. A. [222] With each repeat of events is the hope that some knowledge or awareness is gained to better the individual, hence "And thus it will happen one day that a man will be born again, just like me and a woman will be born, just like Mary—only that it is hoped to be that the head of this man may contain a little less foolishness...."[222]. Nietzsche is associated with anarchism, but his writing seems to have a negative opinion of anarchists. [334] Aspects of Nietzsche's philosophy, especially his ideas of the self and his relation to society, run through much of late-twentieth and early twenty-first century thought. [137], It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish nobility. "[74] Nietzsche scholar Joachim Köhler [de] has attempted to explain Nietzsche's life history and philosophy by claiming that he was homosexual. "[147] The acquisition of the infection from a homosexual brothel was confirmed by Sigmund Freud, who cited Otto Binswanger as his source. His descendants later settled in the Electorate of Saxony circa the year 1700. And is now known as one of the most important thinkers of modern times. Preface by Gianni Vattimo, Rowman & Littlefield, London – New York, 2016, This page was last edited on 5 April 2021, at 05:37. [173][174][175] Nietzsche rejected the idea of objective reality, arguing that knowledge is contingent and conditional, relative to various fluid perspectives or interests. Book III and IV Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche 600 downloads; The Case of Wagner, Nietzsche Contra Wagner, and Selected Aphorisms. He also quoted Mahler himself, and adds that he was influenced by Nietzsche's conception and affirmative approach to nature, which Mahler presented in his Third Symphony using Zarathustra's roundelay. "[78] Nietzsche enjoyed the attention he gave to the beginning of the Bayreuth Festival. [273], W. B. Yeats and Arthur Symons described Nietzsche as the intellectual heir to William Blake. [319] Bertrand Russell wrote that Nietzsche had exerted great influence on philosophers and on people of literary and artistic culture, but warned that the attempt to put Nietzsche's philosophy of aristocracy into practice could only be done by an organization similar to the Fascist or the Nazi party. Gordon, E.R. The willingness is more essential than the merit of the goal itself, according to Nietzsche. [197] He indicated his desire to bring about a new, more naturalistic source of value in the vital impulses of life itself. But such a conception of happiness Nietzsche rejected as something limited to, and characteristic of, the bourgeois lifestyle of the English society,[211] and instead put forth the idea that happiness is not an aim per se. His friend and secretary Gast gave his funeral oration, proclaiming: "Holy be your name to all future generations! He was also alienated by Wagner's championing of "German culture", which Nietzsche felt a contradiction in terms as well as by Wagner's celebration of his fame among the German public. Her brother took … [148] Nigel Rodgers and Mel Thompson have argued that continuous sickness and headaches hindered Nietzsche from engaging much with women. This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made. "IDYLLIC HEROISM: NIETZSCHE'S VIEW OF EPICURUS.” Journal of Nietzsche Studies, no. "Irgendwie, jedenfalls physiologisch. He spent many summers in Sils Maria near St. Moritz in Switzerland. [163] Both of these principles are meant to represent cognitive states that appear through art as the power of nature in man.[164]. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval, yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values. He thought that people should be very aware of their body and of the real world in which they actually live. Nietzsche subsequently concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, whom he followed to the University of Leipzig in 1865. "[188] Just as "there is an order of rank between man and man", there is also an order of rank "between morality and morality. [171] Michel Foucault commented that his own book Madness and Civilization should be read "under the sun of the great Nietzschean inquiry". "[281] Famous writers and poets influenced by Nietzsche include André Gide, August Strindberg, Robinson Jeffers, Pío Baroja, D.H. Lawrence, Edith Södergran and Yukio Mishima. After this, Nietzsche never wrote again and could not look after himself. Nietzsche soon fell into a period of mental anguish, although he continued to write to Rée, stating "We shall see one another from time to time, won't we? Nietzsche would ultimately argue the impossibility of an evolutionary explanation of the human aesthetic sense. From November 1889 to February 1890, the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche, claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche's condition. Nietzsche wrote in a very fiery and exciting way. On his 44th birthday, after completing Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist, he decided to write the autobiography Ecce Homo. Ausgewählte Korrespondenz. It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did, it may not have been extensively. Lange's descriptions of Kant's anti-materialistic philosophy, the rise of European Materialism, Europe's increased concern with science, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, and the general rebellion against tradition and authority intrigued Nietzsche greatly. Hence, the title of the aphorism, "On The Thousand And One Goal". "[245], Nietzsche expressed admiration for 17th-century French moralists such as La Rochefoucauld, La Bruyère and Vauvenargues,[246] as well as for Stendhal. William Heinemann, Feb 25, 2015 - 61 pages. Writer Donald Mitchell noted that Gustav Mahler was "attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra, but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings." He also contracted diphtheria and dysentery. [145] One theory blames Salomé's view on sexuality as one of the reasons for her alienation from Nietzsche. He continued to have frequent and painful attacks of illness, which made prolonged work impossible. What happened remains unknown, but an often-repeated tale from shortly after his death states that Nietzsche witnessed the flogging of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto, ran to the horse, threw his arms around its neck to protect it, then collapsed to the ground. The overman is the meaning of the earth. German soldiers received copies of Thus Spoke Zarathustra as gifts during World War I. It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation, but the return of beings in the same bodies. "Anti-Statism in German Literature, as Exemplified by the Work of John Henry Mackay. Indeed, Mazzino Montinari, the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass, called it a forgery. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity, brought about mediocrity, and the lack of intellectual progress was leading to the decline of the human species. While at Basel, Nietzsche lectured on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought. May, J. Rosenberg, Rorty, Richard. German conductor and pianist Hans von Bülow also described another of Nietzsche's pieces as "the most undelightful and the most antimusical draft on musical paper that I have faced in a long time. [55] The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, and more "German" writers. The "good man" of master morality is precisely the "evil man" of slave morality, while the "bad man" is recast as the "good man". Not being English himself, he had to rely upon the help of collaborators, who were somewhat slow in coming forward. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche translation in German - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'friedlich',Friedensrichter',Friesisch',Friedensbruch', examples, definition, conjugation "[311], Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany. It is a consequence of overcoming hurdles to one's actions and the fulfillment of the will. He believed that ideas of heaven came from an inability to cope with life in the world. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. [320] Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger, who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov, who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy". [168] He notes that without the Apollonian, the Dionysian lacks the form and structure to make a coherent piece of art, and without the Dionysian, the Apollonian lacks the necessary vitality and passion. Nietzsche admired both greatly and during his time at Basel frequently visited Wagner's house in Tribschen in Lucerne. He later wrote several books of philosophy. Supposedly, one day in the city of Turin, Italy, he saw a horse being whipped by its owner and ran to save it, hugging it around the throat. [330] Camus described Nietzsche as "the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd". In the fall of 1888, his writings and letters began to reveal a higher estimation of his own status and "fate". He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure. The essays shared the orientation of a cultural critique, challenging the developing German culture suggested by Schopenhauer and Wagner. 2014. 4751 quotes from Friedrich Nietzsche: 'Without music, life would be a mistake. 1988. In 1872, Nietzsche published his first book, The Birth of Tragedy. On 3 January 1889, Nietzsche suffered a mental breakdown. "[137] At one point, Nietzsche becomes even more adamant about his Polish identity. [March 1887] 1921. [2] Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life; he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. [v][vi][312][313] He was a frequent visitor to the Nietzsche museum in Weimar and used expressions of Nietzsche's, such as "lords of the earth" in Mein Kampf. After graduation in September 1864,[58] Nietzsche began studying theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn in the hope of becoming a minister. They had two other children: a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846; and a second son, Ludwig Joseph, born in 1848. [41] Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; a genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and related theory of master–slave morality;[35][42][i] the aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism;[35] the notion of Apollonian and Dionysian forces; and a characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power. In Also Sprach Zarathustra, Nietzsche proclaimed that a table of values hangs above every great person. All this contributed to his subsequent decision to distance himself from Wagner. After the death of Franziska in 1897, Nietzsche lived in Weimar, where Elisabeth cared for him and allowed visitors, including Rudolf Steiner (who in 1895 had written Friedrich Nietzsche: a Fighter Against His Time, one of the first books praising Nietzsche),[109] to meet her uncommunicative brother. Maudemarie Clark and Alan Swensen in their edition, Hinden, Michael. Bobrowicz, Lipsk 1839–1845: herb Radwan (t. 8 s. 27–29)", "Nietzsche and Lou Andreas-Salomé: Chronicle of a Relationship 1882", "Historicizing Nietzsche? Marburg: Tectum Verlag 2013. [117] Poisoning by mercury, a treatment for syphilis at the time of Nietzsche's death,[118] has also been suggested. [59] In addition, Ludwig Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity influenced young Nietzsche with its argument that people created God, and not the other way around. Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra, and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book. In Daybreak, Nietzsche began his "Campaign against Morality". [72][73], Nevertheless, Nietzsche served in the Prussian forces during the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) as a medical orderly. [158] His writings have also been described as a revolutionary project in which his philosophy serves as the foundation of a European cultural rebirth.[159][160]. In the late 1880s Georg Brandes developed a philosophy called "aristocratic radicalism" inspired by Nietzsche's idea of the "overman.". Wahnbriefe", Nietzsches Briefe, Ausgewählte Korrespondenz, Wahnzettel 1889, "Nietzsche's Visionary Values – Genius or Dementia? 0 Reviews. ), The Lonely Nietzsche. According to a letter he wrote to Peter Gast, this was due to his "attitude towards Christianity and the concept of God".[92]. This concept appears only in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, and is presented as a condition that would render the creation of the overman impossible.[232]. Nietzsche wrote of the affair in 1883, that he now felt "genuine hatred for my sister".[89]. Allan Megill argues that, while Köhler's claim that Nietzsche was conflicted about his homosexual desire cannot simply be dismissed, "the evidence is very weak," and Köhler may be projecting twentieth-century understandings of sexuality on nineteenth-century notions of friendship. He went on to list the number of people Epicurus, for example, had to rely on to supply his simple diet of goat cheese.[83]. [165][166] For the audience of such drama, this tragedy allows them to sense what Nietzsche called the Primordial Unity, which revives Dionysian nature. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content. [137] Oehler claims that Nietzsche came from a long line of German Lutheran clergymen on both sides of his family, and modern scholars regard the claim of Nietzsche's Polish ancestry as "pure invention. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States. "[278][279][280] Nietzsche made an impact on composers during the 1890s. Public Domain content. In 1886, his sister Elisabeth married the antisemite Bernhard Förster and travelled to Paraguay to found Nueva Germania, a "Germanic" colony[94][95] Through correspondence, Nietzsche's relationship with Elisabeth continued through cycles of conflict and reconciliation, but they met again only after his collapse. ", His, Eduard. "[iii], Deussen cited the episode of Cologne's brothel in February 1865 as instrumental to understand the philosopher's way of thinking, mostly about women. The main theme in The Birth of Tragedy is that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian Kunsttriebe ("artistic impulses") forms dramatic arts or tragedies. "[235], Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view of modern society and culture. [305] Eugene O'Neill remarked that Zarathustra influenced him more than any other book he ever read. His end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in Religion and German; a 2a in Greek and Latin; a 2b in French, History, and Physics; and a "lackluster" 3 in Hebrew and Mathematics. [70], Nietzsche's 1870 projected doctoral thesis, "Contribution toward the Study and the Critique of the Sources of Diogenes Laertius" ("Beiträge zur Quellenkunde und Kritik des Laertius Diogenes"), examined the origins of the ideas of Diogenes Laërtius. During these years Nietzsche met Meta von Salis, Carl Spitteler, and Gottfried Keller. this edition of the complete works of Friedrich Nietzsche. The name derives from the forename Nikolaus, abbreviated to Nick; assimilated with the Slavic Nitz; it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche. In 1887, Nietzsche wrote the polemic On the Genealogy of Morality. [274] Symons went on to compare the ideas of the two thinkers in The Symbolist Movement in Literature, while Yeats tried to raise awareness of Nietzsche in Ireland. In responding most enthusiastically to Also Sprach Zarathustra ('Thus Spoke Zarathustra'), Gast did feel it necessary to point out that what were described as "superfluous" people were in fact quite necessary. [54], While at Schulpforta, Nietzsche pursued subjects that were considered unbecoming. Although most commentators regard his breakdown as unrelated to his philosophy, Georges Bataille dropped dark hints ("'Man incarnate' must also go mad")[111] and René Girard's postmortem psychoanalysis posits a worshipful rivalry with Richard Wagner. [148] Köhler also suggests Nietzsche may have had a romantic relationship, as well as a friendship, with Paul Rée. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism;[46] 20th-century scholars contested this interpretation, and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available. Beste Zitate von Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche in Englisch, Französisch, Italienisch, Polnisch, Portugiesisch und Spanisch. This leads to his conclusion that European culture, from the time of Socrates, had always been only Apollonian, thus decadent and unhealthy. In his polemic Philology of the Future, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff damped the book's reception and increased its notoriety. Because of Nietzsche's evocativestyle and provocative ideas, his philosophy generates passionate reactions. Santayana wrote that Nietzsche's work was "an emendation of that of Schopenhauer. ", The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Kasper Niesiecki, Herbarz Polski, wyd. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest", and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand. General commentators and Nietzsche scholars, whether emphasizing his cultural background or his language, overwhelmingly label Nietzsche as a "German philosopher. [333] In Memories, Dreams, Reflections, a biography transcribed by his secretary, he cites Nietzsche as a large influence. For him, women had to sacrifice themselves to the care and benefit of men. [337] His deepening of the romantic-heroic tradition of the nineteenth century, for example, as expressed in the ideal of the "grand striver" appears in the work of thinkers from Cornelius Castoriadis to Roberto Mangabeira Unger. [1987] 1988. Additionally, he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp, an eccentric, blasphemous, and often drunken poet who was found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Richard Wagner. [294][295] Hermann Hesse, similarly, in his Narcissus and Goldmund presents two main characters as opposite yet intertwined Apollonian and Dionysian spirits. [34][35][36][37][38] He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. [177] This view has acquired the name perspectivism. [19], After his death, his sister Elisabeth became the curator and editor of Nietzsche's manuscripts. When he accepted his post at Basel, Nietzsche applied for annulment of his Prussian citizenship. He was regarded as one of the finest riders among his fellow recruits, and his officers predicted that he would soon reach the rank of captain. "[304] Israel Eldad, the ideological chief of the Stern Gang that fought the British in Palestine in the 1940s, wrote about Nietzsche in his underground newspaper and later translated most of Nietzsche's books into Hebrew. One must have the strength of the overman to will the eternal recurrence. The 1868 riding accident and diseases in 1870 may have aggravated these persistent conditions, which continued to affect him through his years at Basel, forcing him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical. Mussolini,[315][316] Charles de Gaulle[317] and Huey P. Newton[318] read Nietzsche. Nietzsche's first philological publications appeared soon after. According to this view, our existence (action, suffering, willing, feeling) has no meaning: this 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists.

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