woher kommt das konstanzer trinkwasser

Major cities : Niamey (Capital). [21][22], The Neolithic era began circa 10,000 BC; this period saw a number of important changes, such as the introduction of pottery (as evidenced at Tagalagal, Temet and Tin Ouffadene), the spread of cattle husbandry, and the burying of the dead in stone tumuli. In December 2005, it was announced that Niger had received 100% multilateral debt relief from the IMF, which translates into the forgiveness of approximately US$86 million in debts to the IMF, excluding the remaining assistance under HIPC. [81][38] The constitution also restored the semi-presidential system which had been abolished a year earlier. [38], The National Sovereign Conference of 1991 marked a turning point in the post-independence history of Niger and brought about multi-party democracy. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Niger maintains a special relationship with former colonial power France and has close relations with its West African neighbors. [38], In 2009, President Tandja Mamadou decided to organize a constitutional referendum seeking to extend his presidency, which was opposed by other political parties, as well as being against the decision of the Constitutional Court which had ruled that the referendum would be unconstitutional. Niger has the 11th highest maternal mortality rate in the world at 820 deaths/100,000 live births. Islam is the most dominant religion, practiced by 99.3% of the population according to the 2012 census.[112]. The other two main religions of Niger are Christianity, practiced by 0.3% of the population, and Animism (traditional indigenous religious beliefs), practiced by 0.2% of the population. A majority of the population lives in rural areas and has little access to advanced education. Niger is divided into 7 Regions and one capital district. [38] In 1899–1900 France coordinated three expeditions—the Gentil Mission from French Congo, the Foureau-Lamy Mission from Algeria and the Voulet–Chanoine Mission from Timbuktu—with the aim of linking France's African possessions. Niger's climate is mainly very hot and very dry, with much desert area. It borders Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, Algeria and Libya to the north and Chad to the east. Nigeria and Benin border it to the south, Mali and Burkina Faso to the west, Libya and Algeria to the north, and Chad to the east. Lewicki, T. (1994). Its drainage basin is 2,117,700 km2 in area. Niger’s natural landscape is what travelers generally seek out, and we too think it’s simply breathtaking. Following the adoption of a new constitution in 2010 and presidential elections a year later, Mahamadou Issoufou was elected as the first president of the Seventh Republic; he was then re-elected in 2016. ", Renversement du président Hamani Diori au Niger, Niger's Elected President Ousted in Military Coup, "1999: President of Niger 'killed in ambush. [39][42] The empire began declining in the 15th century due to a combination of internecine strife over the royal succession, weak kings, the shift of European trade routes to the coast, and rebellions in the empire's periphery by Mossi, Wolof, Tuareg and Songhai peoples. [19] Various measures to improve food security following a series of devastating famines in 1913, 1920 and 1931 were also introduced.[19][38]. [91] This began a political struggle between Tandja, trying to extend his term-limited authority beyond 2009 through the establishment of a Sixth Republic, and his opponents who demanded that he step down at the end of his second term in December 2009. The W National Park, situated in the bordering area to Burkina Faso and Benin, belongs to one of the most important areas for wildlife in Western Africa, which is called the WAP (W–Arli–Pendjari) Complex. The article will attempt to give you a quick rundown on this West African nation, here goes a list of 50 important facts about Niger that cover its history, culture, economy, people, military, wildlife and the river Niger. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with seven other members of the West African Monetary Union. In a coup d'état in February 2010, a military junta led by captain Salou Djibo was established in response to Tandja's attempted extension of his political term by modifying the constitution. Islam, widespread in the region since the 10th century, has greatly shaped the culture and mores of the people of Niger. Their history does not fit easily within the modern boundaries of Niger, which were created during the period of European colonialism; the following adopts a roughly chronological account of the main empires. Its source is in the Guinea Highlands in southeastern Guinea. Mamadou then modified and adopted a new constitution by referendum, which was declared illegal by the Constitutional Court, prompting Mamadou to dissolve the Court and assume emergency powers. [45][53] During the later 18th century many Fulani were unhappy with the syncretic form of Islam practised there; exploiting also the populace's disdain with corruption amongst the Hausa elite, the Fulani scholar Usman Dan Fodio (from Gobir) declared a jihad in 1804. Our vision is to make disciples where Christ is least known. [38] The first action of the military government was to address the food crisis. [32] The Neolithic era also saw the flourishing of Saharan rock art, most notably in the Aïr Mountains, Termit Massif, Djado Plateau, Iwelene, Arakao, Tamakon, Tzerzait, Iferouane, Mammanet and Dabous; the art spans the period from 10,000BC to 100AD and depicts a range of subjects, from the varied fauna of the landscape to depictions of spear-carrying figures dubbed 'Libyan warriors'.[33][34][35]. These Regions are subdivided into 36 departments. It belongs to the UN and its main specialized agencies and in 1980–81 served on the UN Security Council. The Niger River and the main empires of West Africa are indicated on this map. Political parties must attain at least 5 percent of the vote in order to gain a seat in the legislature. [38], Presidential campaigns were organised in the months that followed. [39][40][41] From its heartland around the modern Guinea-Mali border region, the empire expanded considerably under successive kings and came to dominate the Trans-Saharan trade routes, reaching its greatest extent during the rule of Mansa Musa (r. [114][115] Islam was spread into what is now Niger beginning in the 15th century, by both the expansion of the Songhai Empire in the west, and the influence of the Trans-Saharan trade traveling from the Maghreb and Egypt. 8 Mar 2021 As a first step, administrative powers will be distributed among 265 communes (local councils); in later stages, regions and departments will be established as decentralized entities. These include the Hausa-speaking Maouri (or Azna, the Hausa word for "pagan") community in Dogondoutci in the south-southwest and the Kanuri speaking Manga near Zinder, both of whom practice variations of the pre-Islamic Hausa Maguzawa religion. [18] The most common pronunciation is the French one of /niːˈʒɛər/, though in Anglophone media /ˈnaɪdʒər/ is also occasionally used. [59], The French generally adopted a form of indirect rule, allowing existing native structures to continue to exist within the colonial framework of governance providing that they acknowledged French supremacy. Other principal donors include the United States, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. [38] In 1985 a small Tuareg revolt in Tchintabaraden was suppressed. The justice system also includes civil criminal courts, customary courts, traditional mediation, and a military court. [70][71] Maïnassara headed a Conseil de Salut National (National Salvation Council) composed of military official which carried out a six-month transition period, during which a new constitution was drafted and adopted on 12 May 1996. [38] Meanwhile, trouble re-emerged in Agadez Region when a group of armed Tuaregs attacked the town of Tchintabaraden (generally seen as the start of the first Tuareg Rebellion), prompting a severe military crackdown which led to many deaths (the precise numbers are disputed, with estimates ranging from 70 to up to 1,000). [120] Interfaith relations are deemed very good, and the forms of Islam traditionally practiced in most of the country are marked by tolerance of other faiths and lack of restrictions on personal freedom. While successive post-independence governments have tried to forge a shared national culture, this has been slow forming, in part because the major Nigerien communities have their own cultural histories, and in part because Nigerien ethnic groups such as the Hausa, Tuareg and Kanuri are but part of larger ethnic communities which cross borders introduced under colonialism. Niger remained a one-party state throughout this period, with Diori surviving a planned coup in 1963 and an assassination attempt in 1965; much of this activity was masterminded by Djibo Bakary's MSA-Sawaba group, which had launched an abortive rebellion in 1964. [20][19] It is thought that these early humans lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. [36][37] This mobility, which would continue in waves for several centuries, was accompanied with further migration to the south and intermixing between sub-Saharan African and North African populations, as well as the gradual spread of Islam. Despite a number of high-profile kidnappings the rebellion had largely fizzled out inconclusively by 2009. The events generated severe political and social unrest throughout the country.[38]. The reserve is…, Arakao ou la pince de crabe dans l'Aïr ©Richard Julia, De Tabelot à Timia dans l'Aïr ©Richard Julia, W National Park, Niger © Gray Tappan/USGS, Agricultural landscape in the commune of Tondikandia, Tillaberi © Suzanne Cotillon/SGT, Temet, Niger: a wadi in the Sahara © Michiel Kupers, Timia, Aïr Mountains, Niger © Michiel Kupers, The Deforestation of the Upper Guinean Forest, Transforming farmlands through farmer-managed re-greening: The success story in southern Niger, Food insecurity drives deforestation in the Tamou Total Faunal Reserve. The National Police is primarily responsible for law enforcement in urban areas. [98] The military court provides the same rights as civil criminal courts; however, customary courts do not. In 1515 Aïr was conquered by Songhai, remaining a part of that empire until its collapse in 1591. The majority of Muslims in Niger are Sunni, 7% are Shi'a, 5% are Ahmadiyya and 20% non-denominational. [134] The state ORTN network depends financially on the government, partly through a surcharge on electricity bills, and partly through direct subsidy. A constitutional referendum and national elections were held. [124] In 1997, the gross primary enrollment rate was 29.3 percent, and in 1996, the net primary enrollment rate was 24.5 percent. The Caliphate managed to survive until, fatally weakened by the invasions of Chad-based warlord Rabih az-Zubayr, it finally fell to the British in 1903, with its lands later being partitioned between Britain and France. [24][25][26] The Kiffian (circa 8000–6000 BC) and later Tenerian (circa 5000–2500 BC) cultures, centred on Adrar Bous and Gobero where numerous skeletons have been uncovered, flourished during this period. By the late 17th century and into the 18th the Bornu kingdom had entered a long period of decline, gradually shrinking back to its Lake Chad heartland, though it remained an important player in the region. The westernmost regions of Niger are joined with contiguous regions of Mali and Burkina Faso under the Liptako-Gourma Authority. Food crisis worsening in West Africa after COVID-19... dailysabah.com - French Press Agency - AFP • 23h. The central part of Niger is dominated by an extensive pastoral zone — mostly steppes or short grass savannas with shrubs and sparsely scattered trees. Niger has been a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie since 1970. [50] Islam had been introduced to the kingdom by Arab traders from the 11th century, gradually gaining more converts over the following centuries. Niger is a leading producer of uranium and is rich in many other minerals. Its largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. Its neighbours Chad, Burkina Faso and Mali are all in the bottom 10. [113], A small center of followers of Salafi movement within Sunni Islam have appeared in the last thirty years, in the capital and in Maradi. [112] Christianity was established earlier in the country by missionaries during the French colonial years. In 2013, Niger's government has adopted a zero-deficit budget of 1.279 trillion CFA francs ($2.53 billion) which is claimed to balance revenues and expenditures by an 11% reduction in the budget from the previous year. Niger borders seven countries and has a total perimeter of 5,697 kilometres (3,540 mi). Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}16°N 8°E / 16°N 8°E / 16; 8. "The Role of the Sahara and Saharians in Relationships between North and South". Every year since 1990, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has prepared and released a report analyzing the state of development across the world’s nations. A lack of adequate staff to guard wildlife in the parks and reserves is another factor cited for loss of wildlife.[90]. A drought and locust infestation in 2005 led to food shortages for as many as 2.5 million Nigeriens. Niger is mostly a vast plateau, with an average elevation of 500 m, with low local relief. Both Zarma and Hausa areas were greatly influenced by the 18th- and 19th-century Fula led Sufi brotherhoods, most notably the Sokoto Caliphate (in today's Nigeria). Official language: French. [19], Between the Niger River and Lake Chad lay various Hausa Kingdoms kingdoms, encompassing the cultural-linguistic area known as Hausaland which straddles the modern Niger-Nigeria border. Despite this, Niger maintains a tradition as a secular state, protected by law. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", World Economic Outlook Database, April 2018, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Latest Human Development Index (HDI) Ranking (2018)", "Azelik Takedda et le cuivre médiéval dans la région d'Agadez", Ancient cemetery found in 'green' Sahara Desert, "Stone Age Graveyard Reveals Lifestyles Of A 'Green Sahara, "Graves Found From Sahara's Green Period", "Lakeside Cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 Years of Holocene Population and Environmental Change". [19], Several European countries already possessed littoral colonies in Africa, and in the latter half of the century they began to turn their eyes towards the interior of the continent. West Africa / West Africa Niger. Niger or the Niger[10][11] (/niːˈʒɛər/ or /ˈnaɪdʒər/;[12][13] French: [niʒɛʁ]), officially the Republic of the Niger,[10][11] is a landlocked country in West Africa named after the Niger River. [40], The Songhai Empire was named for its main ethnic group, the Songhai or Sonrai, and was centred on the bend of the Niger River in modern Mali. Its total area is 1,270,000 sq. The ICJ Judgment in the Benin-Niger Border Dispute: the interplay of titles and ‘effectivités’ under the uti possidetis juris principle, "RAPPORT DE LA MISSION D’OBSERVATION DES ELECTIONS PRESIDENTIELLES ET LEGISLATIVES DES 16 NOVEMBRE ET 4 DECEMBRE 2004", Niger president rules by decree after court snub, "Military coup ousts Niger president Mamadou Tandja", "Boycott helps Niger President Issoufou win re-election", "France ready to strike extremists on Libya border", "Nigerien President Mahamadou Issoufou set to exit power", "Niger election: Mohamed Bazoum wins landmark vote amid protests", "Niger: Attack on presidential palace an 'attempted coup, "Africa :: Niger — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm", "Africa – Niger leader dissolves parliament", "West Africa: Ecowas, EU Say Niger Elections Satisfactory", "Niger’s Presidential Election Heads to March Runoff", "Niger Politicians Forge Alliances Before March Election", Niger government adopts $2.53 bln budget for 2013, Niger : le budget 2014 porté à 1.867 milliards, "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa", Niger: Population explosion threatens development gains, "Niger: Regions, Cities & Urban Centers - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information", "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat 2012", "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity", International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Niger, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, "The Development of the Izala Movement in Nigeria: Its Split, Relationship to Sufis and Perception of Sharia Implementation", International Religious Freedom Report 2001: Niger, "Islam is thriving in impoverished Niger", Dossier 17: The Muslim Religious Right ('Fundamentalists') and Sexuality, "U.S. has second worst newborn death rate in modern world, report says", SEMINAIRE-ATELIER DE FORMATION ET DE SENSIBILISATION "Mission de service public dans les entreprises de presse d’Etat et privée", Media in Niger: the African Development Information Database, Niger : Conseil de presse.

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